- The workshop introduction
The ice-breaker activity
for this workshop is based on the name game: 10 minutes.
The participants stand
in a circle and each person says their name. One is chosen to be in the middle and is given the newspaper roll. They attempt
to tap the head of a circle member before that member yells out another players name. If the players yells out a name in time
the tapper goes to that player, and so on and so on. They will learn names quite quickly with this.
- Group planning
Divide the workshop participants
into two large groups and then subdivide each of these in smaller groups. Be sure that there are equal numbers of small groups.
- Key- elements in workshop planning
Know your participants
Set right tone
Evaluate and revise
- Workshop methods
Small group work
Using case studies
Using the media
Taking part in activities
Build on what the participants
Encourage the participants
to learn by doing
- Key facilitation skills
- Think, Pair, Share techniques.
Think - individually
Pair - partner
Share - everyone
Seven Steps to Planning
Open the workshop
with something that motivates participants and gets them excited about it. The opening can also provide a rationale for why
learning for a sustainable environment is important to participants and how the workshop will be useful to them. This is the
time to make introductions, conduct a relevant ice-breaker activity, read a motivational quotation or story, or use a special
demonstration or gimmick to get the attention of the participants and draw them into the workshop. If this is not the first
session, you can use part of this time to describe how the new session fits into the overall framework of the workshop. After
that, you might want to ask a question or two to help participants focus on the topic .
is important. You need to set up your workshop space to facilitate learning and interaction. If you have designed small group
activities throughout the workshop, you might want four or five participants seated at each table, which is angled so everyone
can easily see the front of the room. If you have a large group and don't plan to use smaller discussion sessions, try arranging
the chairs in semicircular rows, with a middle aisle and space on all sides. Posters, maps and other visual aids should be
used to help enliven the room. Your goal is to create an environment where everyone feels comfortable, where you can walk
around and interact with participants, and where everyone can see everyone else.
The core of the
workshop is having participants engage in an activity that provides them with an opportunity to "experience" a situation relevant
to the goals of the session. In turn, this "experience" becomes the data-producing event that participants analyse as they
complete the learning experiential cycle. Common experiences involve role plays, case studies and small group activities,
as well as practicing new skills and taking field trips.
Before a workshop
begins, it is important for you to present the purpose of the activity to the participants. Make sure workshop goals and objectives
are written clearly on a flip chart or overhead transparency so that all participants can see them. Clearly state what information
and skills you want the participants to gain by the end of the workshop. This is also the time to discuss how you used information
from the participants' responses to questions about their experiences with/or learning for the topic, to develop the workshop
goals and objectives and to design the workshop. You might want to build some options into the agenda so that participants
can help design their own schedule based on the needs they wish to fulfil.
an opportunity to ask questions about the goals or objectives, add ideas, or raise concerns. You can also conduct an expectations
activity: ask participants to list their expectations on a flip chart and then explain how some or most of these will be met
during the course of the workshop. Display their expectations on the wall and refer to them at the end of the workshop.
take part in an activity, allow them time to share their individual reactions. This helps them begin the process of analysing
and understanding the experience. As facilitator, you need to guide this process by asking three or four processing questions
related to the group task. Typical processing questions include: "What happened in this experience?" "What did you find difficult
about the experience?" "What worked well?" "What would you change?"
one of the most important parts of a workshop. By trying to identify key generalisations about the experience, participants
can see how the activity relates to themselves. Questions such as "What insights did you get from this experience?" or "What
was the most important lesson from the session and why?" can help participants begin to think about how the experience relates
to their everyday work and lives. When generalising, participants can learn by listening to others and may even change their
attitudes as a result of doing so. Generalising questions nudge participants to broader levels of analysis: instead of reviewing
and commenting on specifics, they are asked to address an overall perspective, insight, or attitude.
Using the insights
and conclusions gained from the previous steps, the participants identify and share how they plan to apply or otherwise incorporate
these new insights into their work and their lives. This is a critical step in adult education programs because it gives participants
the time needed to incorporate the new information into their context in meaningful ways. Questions such as "Now what?" and
"How can I use what I learned?" can help participants begin the application process.
The workshop should
end with you, the facilitator, briefly summarising the key workshop events , linking these to the goals and original expectations.
It is important for participants to feel that you accomplished what you set out to do, that their expectations were met, and
that there is closure. You can also use this step to close one session and make a link to the next one.
Lectures are useful for communicating information quickly and efficiently
to a large group. However, lectures are successful because the material is unclear, the presenter is boring or unprepared,
the talk is too long, there are no audio-visuals, or the conditions do not encourage learning (uncomfortable room temperature,
uncomfortable chairs, unreadable overhead transparencies). Lectures tend to be teacher-centred and are not very effective
ways of preparing workshop participants to actually use the knowledge they gain. Nevertheless we should not ignore lectures
totally; a short, interactive lecture can be a very effective workshop experience. Here are some tips for conducting an interactive
KISS: Keep It Short and Sweet
Keep your lectures
short (less than 15 minutes)
to maintain a high level of interest. Select three to five key points that are most important and use your talk to explain
and illustrate them. These key points could be given on your handout, with spaces left between them for participants to make
notes as they see fit.
Ask Probing Questions
Throughout your interactive
lecture, ask workshop participants probing questions that anticipate issues raised in your talk so as to encourage them to
think about specific ideas raised in your presentation. You might also introduce one or more short group activities to encourage
interaction. Do not read a prepared "speech" or "paper", but rather talk about the topic in your own words so as to let your
enthusiasm for the topic show through. By these means workshop participants will be more engaged.
Outline Main Ideas
Make sure that the important
points of your lecture presentation are kept in focus. Make an outline of your lecture presentation so you are better able
to emphasise your main ideas; once again this outline might be distributed to participants to enhance their note making capacity.
Set Time Limits
Give the groups a set amount
of time to complete the allotted tasks. Write the time on a flip chart or overhead transparency. Each group is expected to
manage its time effectively in order to complete the task. Do not give groups too much time - they could become bored and
distracted; it is easier to extend the time than to shorten it.
Logistics of Choosing Groups
You might want to make
small group activities to break the routine or combine participants who have not yet worked together. You can use name-tag
codes, counting off, alphabetical ordering, pre-arranged table groups or picking numbers or colours out of a hat. Do not waste
time with complicated procedures for getting people in groups.
You should assign roles to workshop participants who can help facilitate
small group discussions and reports. For example, you might ask each group to assign:
- a group leader (to keep the discussion moving
and involve everyone);
- a group reporter (to present the group's
findings or ideas to the larger group);
- a group secretary or recorder (to keep notes
on the group discussion or to create flip charts);
- a timekeeper (to ensure that the group covers
all aspects of the task and finishes on time);
Monitoring Small Groups
As the participants work,
it is important for you to move from group to group and be available for questions from the participants. The groups might
need clarification of the task, or they might get side-tracked and need your help to pull them back to the task. Be on the
look-out for participants who are either dominating their groups or not taking part. It is also important to periodically
let the groups know how much time they have left.
Your Part in Role Plays
Role plays offer workshop
participants an opportunity to build confidence, learn new information, practice new skills, or improve ability to work with
others. To make role plays effective, it is important to plan them carefully, make participants feel comfortable, and be clear
about why you are using role playing.
Role plays should
have specific goals; be relevant, realistic and interesting, and should be fairly short (10 - 15 minutes), open-ended (not scripted) and simple. In addition, they should contain a dilemma and include clear roles
and character descriptions. Try to assign roles that represent different views or create some type of compelling interaction
that will help participants learn.
Set the Climate: Get the participants
interested in the role play and what's about to happen. Try to link it to previous sessions; schedule it to occur after participants
have had time to become comfortable with one another.
Share the Purpose: Clarify the
goals of the role play. Give some insights into what participants might learn.
Provide an Overview
of the Situation: Explain the role play to the group, giving descriptions of characters and situation,
and any important background information.
Hand out Role Descriptions: Pass
out copies of the overall scenario and the individual roles. Keep the character descriptions short and simple. Have the participants
pair up to discuss how they will prepare for the roles.
Ask for Volunteers: Solicit volunteers
to play each role. Also explain that if people feel uncomfortable during any part of the session, they can say "freeze" and
the group can help support them and give them ideas about how to proceed. It's important to make role playing as non-threatening
Use Observers: Give observers
a task so they are engaged during the role play and have a common focus. Write the task on the flip chart and link it to the
purpose of the role play.
Coach Role Players:
Help the players with the roles if necessary. Give them time to prepare and feel comfortable.
You might want to have them rehearse in another room.
Set the Stage: When the role players
come into the room, explain where they should sit. Introduce them as the characters they are playing.
Stop the Role
Play: The role play should not last more than 10 minutes. You might want to aim for five to six minutes of actual role playing time and about 15 minutes of debriefing. Briefly turn the floor
over to the observer who will lead a discussion about what just happened.
Case Studies: Telling Stories
Case studies, stories or
scenarios can help workshop participants improve their problem-solving skills and increase their understanding of complex
Good case studies involve real, relevant, and interesting situations
that have plenty of scope for interpretation and debate. Such case studies enable workshop participants to discuss workable
solutions, to listen to different perspectives and to improve their critical thinking skills.
Case studies can either include a solution or withhold it to promote
discussion. They are often written, but could also be presented in video format or orally by workshop participants.
There are many ways to use case studies in your workshop. In some sessions,
a complicated case is the focus of a workshop. In other instances, a series of cases may be one part of a workshop.
If the case study is long,
you might want to assign it as outside reading or use small pieces of it throughout the workshop; if the case study is short,
you can ask participants to read it during the workshop. Whatever the format, the case study should fit participants' experience
levels and interests.
Small Group Processing of Case Study
It is suggested that you process case studies using small groups, so
that you can encourage more discussion and interaction among participants. Make sure to give each small group a specific task
and give enough time for individuals to read and think about the case study before they move into discussion groups.
Before starting the discussion,
remember to ask if there are any questions about the case study.
Questions for Engaging Case Studies
Case studies that present an unresolved situation raise questions that
can be used to stimulate discussions in small groups, lead a large discussion, or guide participants as they read:
What seems to be the underlying issues?
How do the different characters define the issues?
What would you do in this situation?
What questions do you need to ask before you can determine what you
What are the likely outcomes of these different actions?
Which outcome would be
Give participants time
to reflect on the case study and the associated discussions and then to make generalisations that go beyond the case presented.
For example, ask participants for any insights they have gained from the particular problem presented, or for preliminary
conclusions they have drawn from their discussions.
to think about how to apply what they learned from the case study to their lives and work as teacher educators.
Pictures and Other Media
Workshop facilitators use
audio-visual aids to enhance their workshops and the different learning styles of workshop participants. Slides, videos and
films can bring environmental concepts to life. Handouts, overheads or flip charts can be used to emphasise a point by drawing
attention to it and thereby enabling participants to focus on the topic. Your choice of medium will depend on many things
- room design, workshop format, topic, amount of time available, time of day, and personal preference. Here are a few things
to think about when making your choices.
Write large enough so that
letters can be read at the back of a room. A flip chart has several advantages: pieces of paper can be saved and hung on the
walls as "visuals" and the papers can be prepared before the workshop, and saved from one workshop to the next. Use several
colours, and keep the amount of text per page to a minimum.
For workshops with a large
number of participants, "overhead transparencies" have the advantages of the image being larger and the facilitator faces
the group while writing. Transparencies can also be prepared in advance. Keep the text to a minimum and use large letters.
1 Number and name of the module.
2 Purpose/focus of the module.
3 List the range of teaching and learning strategies used within the module.
4 Describe where this module could be used, perhaps with adaptations, within teacher education.
5 How could this module be adapted to suit other groups?
6 Are additional resources or information required for this module? Where/how could these be obtained?
7 Create an interesting poster on this module to share your ideas with