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Teaching/ learning in Primary and Secondary Education in Kampong Cham ,Cambodia.

Strategy, Feasibility
The project
Problem analysis
Strategy, Feasibility
About Multigrade Teaching
Guide for organizing a Multigrade Teaching workshop.

The choice of strategy is to empower the PTTC lecturers and to strengthen the capacity of the PTTCs. This will have a direct influence and will improve the quality of primary education.

By training the maths and applied science lecturers of the PTTC and teachers of application schools, and providing them with teaching materials, the project is concentrating on pre-service training, which has a bigger impact with a much smaller budget than in-service training, which has practical and financial constraints. Development of teaching aids, and creating a good communication network for teachers and staff involved in primary education, are crucial points in the project.

It is also important to help the PTTC with the revision of the curriculum by incorporating life skills. The curriculum should be more practical, prepare students to real life and the labour market, and include cross-cutting issues such as gender, HIV/AIDS and environment.

Besides the PTTC lecturers, the management staff of the PTTC and cooperative schools should get trained and kept informed of any activities and new methodologies given by the project. The project can help to strengthen the management capacity. This can also be done for the inspectors of the POE.


Since several years, the government of Cambodia has prioritised educational reform for socio-economic development and poverty reduction of the country. Access to basic education for all children is one of the MDGs.

Many donors and NGOs have been involved in the reform process, mainly focussing on primary education and obtained some improvement. Up till now, little or no attention was made to lower secondary education.

Statistics show the need to improve the quality of lower secondary education and the government encouraging donors to help.

Belgium is focusing on three provinces in Cambodia: Siem Reap, Otdar Meanchey and Kampong Cham. Otdar Meanchey hasn’t got a PTTC, and pre-service training is given at the PTTC Siem Reap.

MOEYS has developed a master plan for the development of teacher education (2001/5), which states the strategies that should be taken by the government. The VVOB project complies with that master plan.

The project will be implemented at the PTTC level, which is an ideal intermediate level to have an impact on all the stakeholders. It is necessary to keep a good communication network between all stakeholders so that the project will be very effective on all levels. By implementing the project in the PTTC, schools can be directly influenced, as well as the POE. It would also enable the MOEYS to revise the curriculum efficiently and implement new teaching methodologies. It will also help and assist the POE and DOE during the reform process of decentralisation and further capacity building of these offices.

A main risk is the motivation of the teachers, which is very low. They might be reluctant to learn new teaching methods, if the government gives no incentives.

Another risk is the lack of knowledge of foreign languages. It would be helpful if some staff would be trained in English or French to facilitate communication. Another option is to work with translator.

A main threat is the lack of communication between different institutions and departments. This could be helped by regular meetings and eventually newsletters, or by a steering committee.


By involving all actors and insuring a good communication network, this project will contribute to the development of the lower secondary education sector in the country in coherence with the reforms programme planned by the MOEYS. The project will have an impact on provincial, district and national level and will contribute to the capacity building of all institutions involved.

To ensure access to basic quality education is also one of the UN Millennium Development Goals.

Multigrade Teaching project Cambodia